Google+
Friday 25th of April 2014 03:44:56 AM
 

You buy the Truth, we pay the Price
 

Why Africa should tell her own story

E-mail Print PDF

Debunking the myths that mass media generally perpetuate about Africa and Africans

Most Western journalists covering Africa tend to purvey prejudice rather than convey accurate information. Even when the journalist knows a specific story is an oversimplification and/or misrepresentation of a more nuanced reality, they still retreat to prejudice to pander to their audiences.

However, there are very few journalists who have defied this logic and tried to present a more nuanced picture of Africa and Africans. One of these has been Fareed Zakaria of CNN and Time Magazine. When he is not pandering to the interests of the dominant forces in American politics, he can be insightful and thoughtful.

He has previously demonstrated an ability to tell a more nuanced story on Africa that reflects our complex reality. I was therefore shocked when he retreated to prejudice in last week’s GPS program. He stated: “Africa’s leaders are locked in a marathon to see who can reign longest. The leaders of Equatorial Guinea and Angola have been in power for 34 years.

Zimbabwe and Cameroon have had the same men in charge for 33 and 30 years respectively. These and a number of other African states are nominal democracies, but they are essentially run by dictators. Elections, if they’re held at all, tend to be a sham, pockmarked by intimidation, fraud, and violence.”

Africa is a continent of 55 nations. Of these, nine have ruled for more than 20 years, eleven have ruled for more than 15 years. I use 15 because up until 2002 a French president with two terms can do 14 years. And given our constant reference to Western notions, this makes 15 years reasonable. This means that 44 presidents and prime ministers have ruled for less than 15 years.

How are the eleven long-serving leaders representative of Africa? An accurate presentation would have been like: “Although most of Africa has moved to regular change of government through multi party electoral competition and/or term limits, a few countries have remained stuck with long serving leaders.”

Indeed, in 1975, only two of Africa’s presidents had been chosen through an election where they faced a rival backed by an opposition party. In 2013, 50 African leaders had been elected through competitive multi party elections. I admit, as Zakaria says, that some of these elections are not free and fair.

But that is understandable. You cannot open up today and have a Norwegian democracy tomorrow. Therefore we cannot measure democracy by an absolute figure but only relatively i.e. by examining the progress in political participation and contestation over the years since opening up political space.

Secondly, let me assume, just for argument’s sake that the longevity of a leader causes economic stagnation. According to IMF, of the world’s ten fastest-growing economies over the last decade (2003-2013), seven are from Africa. Of these, four had/have been ruled by one President for more than 20 years and only two for less than 10 years: Libya (42), Equatorial Guinea (34), Angola (34), Ethiopia (22), Rwanda (13), Nigeria (3) and Mozambique (8).

From this sample, it seems longevity is good for growth although that is not my point. One could say the fastest-growing countries are oil rich (Libya, Angola and Equatorial Guinea) and therefore enjoying high oil prices. But how about Rwanda and Ethiopia that don’t have rich natural resources and their leaders who engineered this growth have/had been in power for more than ten years?

Nigeria too has oil, but Mozambique, which has discovered gas, was not enjoying a resource boom. And with the exception of Ethiopia and Rwanda, all the fastest growing Africa economies over the last decade are very corrupt.

Historically, all the leaders who transformed Asian economies tended to rule for decades. Chiang Kai Shek in China/Taiwan (50 years), Suharto in Indonesia (32 years), Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore (30 years), Mahthir Mohammed in Malaysia (22), Park Chung Hee in South Korea (17 years). Rwandans may take note of these facts.

In all these cases, these leaders ruled with an iron fist and presided over high levels of corruption (except for Singapore). Therefore, there is little correlation between longevity and misrule. In Africa, we need to investigate the specific factors that made autocracy and corruption harmful to growth and why today we are seeing opposite trends.

It is possible that Africa’s current growth is a result of many interacting factors – improved policies and institutions (because we have learnt from the experience of failure in the 1970s, 80s and 90s), China’s demand for our resources etc. But most critically, I think an increasingly educated and sophisticated population provides a bigger slice of the answer. When I joined university in 1993 (20 years ago), total university enrolment of Ugandans in the country and abroad was less than 8,000 students.

Today, it is more than 100,000. Across Africa, we are seeing this revolution. We have accumulated a critical mass of human capital. At independence, DR Congo had 15 university graduates, Tanzania nine, Chad, CAR, Niger Rwanda and Burundi none.

Zakaria does not know this. So he claims that: “For decades, NGO’s and Western countries have tied aid money and trade to promises for greater transparency among Africa’s countries. But China has upended the system. Beijing is known to give aid and sign trade deals with no strings attached. Instead, its priority is to extract commodities at the best possible price. And that, in turn, has led to the commodities boom, which has fuelled growth in Africa.”

This sounds like London, Paris and Washington propaganda to make the West feel/look good and morally superior. Yet throughout its post-independence history, the worst and longest serving dictators in Africa – Mobutu in Zaire, Samuel Doe in Liberia, Bokasa in CAR, Siad Barre in Somalia, Mubarak in Egypt, Ben Ali in Tunisia, Moi in Kenya, Omar Bongo in Gabon, Eyadema in Togo, Biya in Cameroun, Nguema in Equatorial Guinea, apartheid in South Africa, Habyarimana in Rwanda – in fact every thug I can think of has been propped and supported by the West, not China.

Indeed, Western powers have fought every nationalist who dared to defend Africa’s interests. Nelson Mandela was labeled a terrorist, Kwame Nkrumah, Milton Obote, Julius Nyerere, Patrice Lumumba, Thomas Sankara, Amilcar Cabra, Murtala Mohamed – every hero of the African people has been demonized by Western governments, their media and academia, fought and many were overthrown.

That is why Africa needs to tell her own story.

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Comments (41)Add Comment
Flashback
written by namara, November 03, 2013
Way back you strongly mentioned that you were willing to bet USD$10,000, arguing that Paul kagame would respect the term limits and step down after this term. Now you are drumming for kagame in the name of 'Rwanda should note of these facts'. Surely that was uncalled for (out of context)inasmuch as you like to drum for Kagame. Back to the point, I bet that kagame will stay and ready to stake USD $10,000. Pls confirm and I look for you and sign the agreement. I wld like to know why on the list of long serving dictators that have been supported by the west, you omitted Museveni and included, say moi? Last, Congo had 3 graduates not 15 at her independence.
"Is it blackmail, or?" (I missed the point)
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 03, 2013
Mr. Mwenda's scepticism about Fareed's journalism is apparently subjective. It is becoming more difficult to make a thoughtful follow-up on "The last word." In his previous article (Please do Africans a favor, don't help them) and in an effort to recognize the cause of the "new breed of African leaders, Andrew noted: "It is not true that Africa lacks such initiatives. When our founding fathers- Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela, Amilcar Cabral, Sekou Toure, Jomo Kenyatta, Patrie Lumumba, Milton Obote, Robert Mugabe, etc- confronted colonial injustice, they did not sit passively calling upon a kind international community to save the situation.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 03, 2013
They took the colonial bull by the horns. Careers were abandoned, educations sacrificed, property destroyed, lives lost and many spent years in jail fighting for freedom, equality and human dignity. Yet, political progress does not follow a linear progress. Thus, some of these leaders retreated to the instruments of the colonial state to repress their citizens. Bad rule stimulated fresh political contestations. This led to the second generation of struggle for better governance." But that was last week. Today, he effortlessly and shamelessly makes a "screamer" for a conclusion. "Indeed, Western powers have fought every nationalist who dared to defend Africa’s interests.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 03, 2013
Nelson Mandela was labeled a terrorist, Kwame Nkrumah, Milton Obote, Julius Nyerere, Patrice Lumumba, Thomas Sankara, Amilcar Cabra, Murtala Mohamed – every hero of the African people has been demonized by Western governments, their media and academia, fought and many were overthrown.That is why Africa needs to tell her own story." To which I ask, which story was he telling when he indicated that, "Bad rule stimulated fresh political contestations?" Was he last week a "Western Propagandist" and today an African? The sharp contradiction exhibited in a span of a week is a clear manifestation of the lack of a deeper understanding of our "Africanism."
The Proud African Elites are confusing us.
written by Tina, November 03, 2013
Andrew this is almost the 10th Article attacking the west i wonder what they did to you. Africa still needs Europe some parts of Africa are still in a sorry state we gain nothing by pretending that we can handle issues. lets be honest the wealth in Africa is controlled by a few prominent families so what happens to the rest? If America and Europe can willingly give Aid why say no just for the seek of it.
...
written by Staff Gen. Adam Kifalisso, November 04, 2013
Oh Andrew , Africa has had many graduates in many thousands of years , it is only that they did not come from western type of education institutes, In Uganda institutional education is not even 120 yrs. old , in some cases the institutions are older that states in which they are found . Longevity in power has nothing to with delivery in development , its the stability in the political set up that helps to crop business which steers growth or catastrophe During Mobutu's reign Zaire saw growth and economic collapse , during m7's time Uganda has seen the same . It could good if rulers left power after running out of constructive ideas like Uganda's m7
Good for young re#ders
written by Tayebwa, November 04, 2013
Andrew yo day best I like the way u Set the Agenda and tickle Kakyama's mind. Keep it up those arguments are good for young readers theres a lot to learn. Cheers all of u who comment on Andrew's Articles we learn a lot from u keep it up guys yo day light for young generation.
Indeed, Africa must defy Western arrogance and subjugation
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
I agree, Africa must tell her story. Africa has lived for countless ages under the Western siege, it’s time to defy the odds, tell her story and determine her direction. African was not only colonized through West’s trumpeting of her superior military, politics, economy and religion, but also by dubbing Africa inferior. As a result, Africans would excitedly reject their “inferior” identity, and willingly struggle to embrace the “superior” West. As Karl Marx would describe it, Africans entered the trench of “self-alienation” in admiration of foreign identity.
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Initially, Africans were savages with no human body and soul. Later, they graduated to savage human beings, with no civilization. So, they needed to be civilized and be taught and given a religion. Even when their identity was “confirmed” as truly human, an African mind was still dubbed pre-logical, his way of doing things annoyingly rude, his colour unfortunately black (black is associated with evil: blackmail, black market, even in our home-yard, black Monday…), and his blood accidentally red, with human melanin.
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Western superiority was so sowed with ideology of domination. Fortunately, unable to pander to this humiliation, independence African liberators (Kwame Nkrumah, Thomas Sankara, Amilcar Cabra, Patrice Lumumba, Julius Nyerere, Nelson Mandela…) and pockets of other resistors, crafted the ideology of resistance. In face of this resistance, the West surrendered Africa’s independence, but relabelled her colonial manoeuvre. The portrayal of Africa as, undemocratic, corrupt, and ideologically inept is part of this neo-colonial project.
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Zakaria, and his sponsors, work to promote this domination, which Africa must reject. Incidentally, Africa’s attempts at redeeming herself from the grips of the West are often faced with brutal resistance from the West and, unfortunately, internally from her Western-oriented elites. But with increased access to education (albeit still entirely western in nature and orientation), means of social communication and a sense of self-worth, Africans should find it easier now than ever before to defy this domination.
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
This can only be achieved if African-oriented elites and other African-minded peoples take stock of our past (successes and failures); seek to understand and explain our reality in an objective and realistic manner; craft an ideology of good self-governance, peace and prosperity; and craft workable strategies for implementing this new order. This is the basic asset that Africa still lacks, and to which we must contribute.
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
To agree with Andrew, this can only (or best) happen if Africa seeks to revise, tell and better her own story, by herself. Short of this, Africa shall remain slave to self-alienation, and sadly to self-condemnation. As Salman Rushdie once penned, “those who don’t have power over the story that dominated their lives, the power to retell it, deconstruct it, joke about it and change it as times change, truly are powerless because they can’t think new thoughts.”
...
written by Denis Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Similarly, Jean Houston noted, “to be a person is to have a story to tell. But if you keep telling the same sad small story, you will keep living the same sad small life.” To paraphrase Houston’s words, to be a great continent, is to have a story to tell. But if Africa keeps telling (and the West keeps talking about Africa) the same sad small story, Africa shall remain the same sad small continent. The West has had in the past a worse story than that of Africa. Africa has the capacity to reconstruct and better her story.
dizzying arguments
written by Marvin ya Kuku, November 04, 2013
Was he last week a "Western Propagandist" and today an African?
No, he is an apologist for various things and that means being a western and/or african propagandaist depending on what he indefensible position he is trying to push forward.
@Denis Musinguzi
written by Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Dear namesake, I hear you calling; loud and clear. We need to tell our story and what better way to do it than people like Andrew expanding the platform on which this story is told beyond the independent magazine to independent Africa TV to Match Fareed Zakaria for example. Our own talented journalists like Andrew, Onyango obbo, Shaka Sali, Allan Kasujja etc should be able to run such. They are exposed and informed. Unfortunately, this is not the first time I am suggesting this; there must be complicationsassociated with it that I am not able to see with my simple mind. But what a dream that would be for some of us!
...
written by Andrew unlike Mwenda, November 04, 2013
Do Rwandans a favor and leave them to tell their story too. You're not Rwandese but you like to speak for us.
...
written by Staff Gen. Adam Kifalisso, November 04, 2013
It is hard for Africa to tell its own story is the situations where people still believe that their dear leaders brought the solar eclipse to African to lure tourists...! This is the case of Uganda , where even the dictator is declared the ''Chief Viewer''.
The conditions are not for African to tell its own story when Arab crooks are still trafficking people across deserts and mediterranean seas but EU chooses to ignore that and instead tries to defend tyrants not to attend ICC for crimes committed against humanity .Africa is now a victim of globalisation its now like a dirty back street full of brothels
@Adam
written by Musinguzi, November 04, 2013
Adam, let us look at the building of an African state the way a parent looks at their growing child who is not getting good grades in class. No matter how poorly your child is doing in class, we are advised to be patient and encouraging and pass on our frustration to the child in a constructive manner. This total blame and "total failure syndrome" has never and will never be the way to go; unless ofcourse one is lacking in parenting skills. Reporting the child to the headmaster for a beating may humiliate the child but it casts you in bad light as well. Instead, we have to find out ourselves what it is that we can do to improve the performamnce of this growing child.
...
written by OJA, November 04, 2013
We should not be discussing symptoms but rather the root-cause of all this. It is poor leadership in Africa which is at the malady. A truly good, patriotic, visionary and self-less leader contributes a lot to the solid building of a nation. He builds institutions based on sound and workable laws. In fact, Africa's story will never be told well if we still have the type of leaders we have. Prof. George Ayitteh calls them "HIPPO GENERATION...&...CROCODILE LIBERATORS." They are stuck in the mud and can't move themselves and countries they hold hostage anywhere. As murderers tyrants they at best succeed in self-preservation. So, unless Africans uproot such things, it's story will always be adulterated.
interesting
written by seremani, November 04, 2013
i noticed 3 oddities in this article
- the long list of heroes of Africa, that include among other Thomas Sankara, etc but interestingly no Fred Rwigema on that list although Rwanda is referred to many times and he is a hero for Rwandans
-the long list of African dictators propped up by the West, but no Blaise Compaore on that list although he killed Sankara and is a long serving dictator
- the "Rwandans may take notice" thing
...
written by Diane Kenneth, November 04, 2013
Andrew, first I would believe you if you had not told the stories of other countries. But many of your articles have told the story of USA for example. Secondly, I believe journalism has boundaries that certain stories are left to be told by the nationals of the concerned countries. I believe if you disagreed with what Fareed said, you can challenge him with facts rather than telling the Western world to let Africa tell its stories.
...
written by Diane Kenneth, November 04, 2013
Indeed, I am one of those who is fed up with the Western media's portrayal of Africa but we will lose the war if all we tell them is to keep off our issues. What we need is people who can tell Africa's story truthfully. You were one such person but Africa has since lost you. Whenever you claim to speak for us, it is only when people who wet your throat are attacked. So sad!
"Boomerang" (The true African story)
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
Sometimes I am fearful of suffocating this platform with my "spew." But then I am always reminded that it's the only way the body can fight poison. I want to disparage Andrew's lies, word for word, if at all the allowance. Let us begin telling the "African story" from its genesis. By 1980, 44 (90%) of the African states had attained independence. The difference was that the new rulers were themselves Africans and that they had initially acquired their positions not through force but by the votes of fellow Africans. But there was a chasm between them and the mass of ordinary men and women in the villages and fields for whom life went on pretty much as when power was being wielded by colonialists.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
All the new African rulers, whether they professed radical socialism or were conservative and empirical in their policies, found difficulty in fulfilling the expectations of their citizens, first by the swelling contract with the developed world that had cut the colonial guiding strings and declared that they could stand by themselves. For instance, by 1982, two-thirds of Zaire's export earnings was required to meet its external debt. The position of Sudan was much the same in 1983, and that of the hitherto very prosperous Ivory coast was over 40% of its export earnings needed for debt servicing.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
Under such circumstances, it was of little wonder that the richer Western nations, and bodies like the I.M.F. and the World Bank which are perceived to be their agencies should be accused of 'neo-colonialism'. Did the Western powers fight every nationalist who dared to defend Africa’s interests? No. On the contrary and interestingly, out of the 44 independent African states, 18 (41%) had never experienced a military take-over. And 14 (32%) had not had more than one. On the whole the continent had been relatively stable even though it was more varied South ot the Sahara. Statistics indicate that many of the African leaders who took their countries to independence, either died in presidency or retired.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
some of these are: Sekou Toure of Guinea (From 1958- died 1984), Ahidjo of Cameroon (From 1960- retired 1982), Senghor of Senegal (From 1960- retired 1980), Julius Nyerere of Tanzania (From 1961- retired 1985), Kamuzu Banda of Malawi (From 1964- died in office), Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya (From 1963- died 197smilies/cool.gif and others. So it is rather slanderous for anyone to state that the Western powers fought every African nationalist later on, an opinion leader like Andrew.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013

Enter Rwanda
There is no doubt that there is some economic development in Rwanda. However, this development is being engineered by largely I.M.F, World Bank and any such international aid intervention. For today's discussion I will extract some information from Statement by the IMF Mission at the Conclusion of its Visit to Rwanda “The IMF mission and the Rwandan authorities reached a staff-level agreement on a successor three-year Policy Support Instrument (PSI).
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
The new PSI is in line with the authorities’ new Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS 2), and aims to maintain macroeconomic stability and rapid inclusive growth, while gradually reducing Rwanda’s aid dependency. “Economic growth slowed to 5.9 percent during the first half of 2013 as the government adjusted to a shortfall in donor budget support. The expansion in the services sector slowed and so did the pace of construction." “Performance under the IMF-supported program has continued to be satisfactory." “Looking ahead, the macroeconomic outlook points to a pick-up in growth in the second half of this year as domestic demand recovers with the resumption of aid flows.
...
written by Rajab Kakyama, November 04, 2013
" This was as of 1st October, 2013. And it is very clear how the I.M.F is the linchpin of Rwanda's economic growth. I hope I have been able to demonstrate that having failed to take on the mantle, African leaders resorted to Western Nations for help and that it was in this same spirit that the African states sought out the ICC. But yet again retracted on their decision as they wont. Such mannerisms have not only been exhibited by our leaders but also by our so self-styled "African elites" who contradict their own stories in a span of just seven days.
@Rajab Kakyama
written by Diane Kenneth, November 04, 2013
First, in my posting above, I meant to say .....I believe journalism has no boundaries that certain stories are left to be told by the nationals of the concerned countries.....,,

Many thanks once again Rajab for your insightful posting.
That is what oppression means or does
written by Ocheto, November 04, 2013
That is a sign of oppression.The most important story out of Africa is that some of the most brutal regimes in Africa are ruled by despots. That self-rule and autonomy has aluded African governments. That nothing really changes. The problem with African elites is that they think there is actual change taking place, when in reality the societies are stagnant or worse retrogressing. The same instutions that the colonialists left 60 or 70 years ago are still the only institutions of worth if they are standing. And what about the audience? To have an impact the audience got to be global. And for that to happen the message got to be universal.
That is what oppression means or does
written by Ocheto, November 04, 2013
And the global power architecture is northern. Relocating centers of global governance for instance the ICC to the south and renaming it say a Mandela court would be a better way to change the global power matrix. Instead the ICC like all the institutions of global governance was located in the north, Europe.
...
written by OPIO, November 05, 2013
I need 2 find the history master at Mbarara high sch-1993, becoz this dear boy Mwenda shd not have passed his A-level History. How dare u to name Obote as an African hero? That singing drunkard who betrayed a good friend king Muteesa, ripped up our 1st constitution, and began a period of unending war and strife going on up to now. I put it 2 u mwenda that the only african heroes in Ug EVER are kabaka mwanga, omukama kabalega, Idi Amin and if u don't know why, then just quit pontificating abt political history altogether. OKITEGERA GWE BOYI ??
Africa's Story.
written by Denis, November 05, 2013
Andrew African leaders lately are traversing the globe inviting FDI as the principle vehicle for growth,this places an onus on Western media to tell their prospective Investors into Africa the African story as they see it. It is false to assume that there is little correlation between longevity and misrule the contrary is true with Singapore remaining the sole exception to this general rule.I invite you,if you have not already,to read Lee Kuan Yew's From Third to First World to understand how well intentioned the South Eastern Asian leaders you enumerate above lost the plot towards the end of their long stay in office. For as long as we continue to seek bilateral economic and other partnerships with other countries,we kind of cannot limit the telling of our story.
...
written by Staff Gen. Adam Kifalisso, November 05, 2013
Andrew Mwenda , the man you supported all along the city planner , Agaba has been fired for corruption. Does this ring bells to you Mr Intellectual ...?
Andrew we you are the behind his courtroom suits with his bodyguard , both are accused of murder
...
written by Winnie, November 06, 2013
This is an absolutely brilliant piece i still believe that Africans can make it we just need to be more confident and improve on our self estimate and be open to development i dont know why our ambitions and standards are too low. Africans just like hiding behind democracy and Rights yet our problems are too easy to solve e.g Malaria -just sleep under a mosquito net,Jiggers -just keep your homes clean must you broadcast such simple diseases for the whole world to see? these days countries are graded even in Europe there is Britain,Germany,France in Grade A then Spain,Portugal in Grade B in Africa, Uganda,Ethiopia ,Zambia,Ghana,TZ,Kenya,Nigeria Rwanda are in Grade B then Congo,mail ,Somalia are in Grade D. of course S.Africa,Tunisa,are in Grade A coz they are not purely black Africans
...
written by Winnie, November 06, 2013
Adam the Eclipse was just OK. better learn to love your country i knew that if the world ended that day i would go to heaven with the chief viewer even the Foreign journalists promised to show Uganda on Discovery Channel and on Piers Morgan's show you know Ugandans are so friendly and warm to visitors they indeed had a guided tour of Uganda.
...
written by Staff Gen. Adam Kifalisso, November 06, 2013
Winnie you are improving continue to attend YMCA afternoon classes you English is improving now you are at the level of the late vice president Mustapha Adrisi . For a lady like Winnie who did her PLE while serving her term in Luzira its an achievement to be able to contribute in this forum
DEVILS' ADVOCATE
written by Lukyamuzi Kabakasman, November 07, 2013
Mwenda has systematically with time become an advocate of devils and devilish things. One only needs to compare the Mwenda of Kfm and The Monitor and the Mwenda of today.
Yes because of the little wit he has he can try making hell sound like heaven but the keen eyed can see and know why his messages are vague nowdays. He finds himself in a dilemma where he has to appease the ruling classes but also maintain the moral and intellectually astute standing he would like to be known for.
His reasoning of countries like Singapore having been ruled by one individual for a long time in order to get where they are is so shallow because not all developed nations are like that.
DEVILS' ADVOCATE
written by Lukyamuzi Kabakasman, November 07, 2013
I am waiting for him to come out and state un ashamedly that development also requires looting of National properties like the land that him and other cronies shared amongst themselves at Butabika. You morons who even have no mercy for the mentally sick!!!

Write comment

busy
 
 
 
 

NTV Newsnight

 
COMMENT